She was best known as the personal modiste and confidante of Mary Todd Lincolnthe First Lady. Keckley had moved to Washington in after buying her freedom and that of her son in St. She created an independent business in the capital based on clients who were the wives of the government elite. Among them were Varina Daviswife of Jefferson Davis ; and Mary Anna Custis Leewife of Robert E.
After the American Civil WarKeckley wrote and published an autobiography, Behind the Scenes: Or, Thirty Years a Slave and Four Years in the White House It was both a slave narrative and a portrait of the First Family, especially Mary Todd Lincoln, and is considered controversial for breaking privacy about them.
It was also her claim as a businesswoman to be part of the new mixed-race, educated middle-class that was visible among the leadership of the black community. Keckley's relationship with Mary Todd Lincoln, the President's wife, was notable for its personal quality and intimacy, as well as its endurance over time. Elizabeth Keckley was born a slave in Februaryin Dinwiddie County Court HouseDinwiddie, Virginiajust south of Petersburg. Her mother Agnes was a house slave owned by Armistead and Mary Burwell.
Agnes did not tell Keckley her father's true identity until on her own deathbed, although it was "obvious" by Elizabeth's appearance that he was white.
The nature of the relationship between Agnes and Burwell is unknown. He permitted Agnes to marry George Pleasant Hobbs, a literate slave who lived and worked at a neighbor's home during Elizabeth's early childhood.
When his owner decided to move far away, Hobbs was taken away from his family. Although they were never reunited, they corresponded for many years. As an adult, Elizabeth Keckley noted "the most precious mementoes of my existence are the faded old letters that he wrote, full of love, and always hoping that the future would bring brighter days. Keckley lived in the Burwell house with her mother and began official duties at age 4. As the Burwells had four children under age 10, Mary assigned Elizabeth to be the nursemaid for their infant Elizabeth Margaret.
One day she accidentally tipped the cradle over too far, and the infant rolled onto the floor. Mary Burwell beat her severely. At age 14, inKeckley was sent to live "on generous loan" with the eldest Burwell son Robert in Chesterfield County, Virginianear Petersburg, when he married Margaret Anna Robertson.
The family moved to Hillsborough, North Carolinawhere Robert was a minister and teacher at the Burwell School. Keckley mentioned that Margaret seemed "desirous to wreak vengeance"  upon her. Keckley wrote letters to her mother during her time there. Margaret enlisted neighbor William J. Bingham to help subdue the girl's "stubborn pride". When Keckley was 18, Bingham called her to his quarters and ordered her to undress so that he could beat her.
Keckley refused, saying she was fully grown, and "you shall not whip me unless you prove the stronger. Nobody has a right to whip me but my own master, and nobody shall do so if I can prevent it. The next week, Bingham flogged her again until he was exhausted.
Again Elizabeth was sent back to her master with bleeding welts upon her back. A week later, Bingham flogged her again until he was exhausted, while she suppressed her tears and cries.
The next week, after yet another attempt to "break her", Bingham had a change of heart, "burst[ing] into tears, and declar[ing] that it would be a sin" to beat her anymore. Keckley claims that he kept his word.
Also in Hillsborough, a prominent white man of the community, Alexander M. Kirkland, forced a sexual relationship on Elizabeth for four years of what she called "suffering and deep mortification".
When the Garland family had financial difficulties, they sold some slave children and "hired out" others, collecting the fees of their wages. Keckley and her mother remained with their mistress Ann Garland and her husband. Keckley's sewing helped support the family. After many moves, the Garlands moved to St. Louis, Missouri intaking Aggy and Elizabeth with them to tend the children and do all the family sewing.
Nearly 12 years of living and working in St. Louis gave Keckley the chance to mingle with its large free black population. She also established connections with women in the white community which she drew on as a free dressmaker.
Keckley met her future husband James in St. Louis, but refused to marry him until she and her son were free. When she asked Hugh A. Garland to free them and he refused, she worked for two years to persuade him. Keckley considered going to New York to try to "appeal to the benevolence of the people.
Louis until she had earned enough to repay her patrons, as she had promised. Keckley worked hard in her business as well as personal life. Looking beyond life in St. Louis, she enrolled her son in the newly established Wilberforce University.
She also planned to leave St. Louis and James Keckley. In earlyshe and her son moved to Baltimore, Maryland.
She intended to run classes for young "colored women" to teach her system of cutting and fitting dresses. But after six weeks she had hardly enough money to get to Washington, D. In mid, Keckley intended to work as a seamstress in Washington, but lacked the money to pay for the required license as a free black to remain in the city for more than 30 days.
Olaudah Equiano (c): The Former Slave, Seaman & Writer: The Abolition of Slavery Project
Keckley appealed to her patrons, and a Ms. Ringold used her connection to Mayor James G. Berret to petition for a license for Keckley. Berret granted it to her free of charge. Keckley worked to establish clients and gain enough work to support herself. Commissions for dresses were steadily coming in, but a dress that she completed for Mrs. Lee sparked the business' rapid growth. Keckley found most of her work with society women by word-of-mouth recommendations.
Margaret McLean of Maryland, introduced by Varina Davisrequested a dress from Keckley and said she needed it urgently. Keckley declined, as she had heavy order commitments. McLean offered to introduce Keckley to "the people in the White House", the newly elected president Abraham Lincolnand his wife. Elizabeth Keckley met Mary Todd Lincoln on March 4,the day of Abraham Lincoln 's first inauguration. As she was preparing for the day's events, Mrs.
Lincoln asked Keckley to return the next day for an interview. When she arrived, Keckley found other women there to be interviewed as well, but Mrs. Lincoln chose her as her personal modiste. In addition to dressmaking, Keckley assisted Mrs. Lincoln each day as her personal dresser. She also helped Mrs. Lincoln prepare for official receptions and other social events.
For the next six years, Keckley became an intimate witness to the private life of the First Family. Known for her love of fashion, the First Lady kept Keckley busy maintaining and creating new pieces for her extensive wardrobe.
During the Lincoln administration and many years afterwardKeckley was the sole designer and creator of Mary Todd Lincoln's event wardrobe. In JanuaryMrs. Lincoln went for photos to Brady's Washington Photography Studiowhere she had images taken while wearing two of Keckley's gowns.
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For several years to come, she wore Keckley's dresses to many official events and had more portraits taken while wearing Keckley's work. Keckley founded the Contraband Relief Association "CRA" in Augustreceiving donations from both Lincolns, as well as other white patrons and well-to-do free blacks. The organization was based in Washington, D. The Contraband Relief Association became lost to history, but it set the standards and showed the need for relief organizations to provide aid to the poor and displaced black community.
The work of the Contraband Relief Association within the black community helped create black autonomy. Through intra-ethnic networking, the Association created an organization by and for African Americans.
Keckley wrote about the contrabands in Washington, D. She said that ex-slaves were not going to find "flowery paths, days of perpetual sunshine, and bowers hanging with golden fruit" in Washington D. The CRA used the independent black churches for meetings and events, such as the Twelfth Baptist Church, Fifteenth Street Presbyterian Church, Israel African Methodist Episcopal Church, and Siloam Presbyterian Church.
Sella Martinas well as prominent white figures, such as Wendell Phillips. The CRA distributed clothes, food, and shelter amongst the freedmen and sent funds to many. When Keckley began working at the White House, the Lincolns had two young children, William and Tad. She sometimes was given domestic duties such as looking after the children, such as during periods of sickness.
Keckley was a source of strength and comfort for the Lincolns after Willie died. Keckley's own son, George Kirkland, who was more than three-quarters white, enlisted as a white in the Union Army in after the war broke out. He was killed in action on August 10, Keckley also comforted the First Lady after the President Lincoln's assassination. Lincoln became secluded, allowing only a few into her quarters. Finding Lincoln in a critically delicate state, Keckley stood by her to give 30 sec binary options strategy. Lincoln gave away many of her husband's personal items to people close to her, including Keckley.
Keckley acquired Mary Lincoln's blood-spattered cloak and bonnet from the night of the assassination, as well as some of the President's personal grooming items. Lincoln insisted that Keckley accompany her to Chicago to assist her in her new life and myriad affairs. Roughly one month after the assassination, Keckley boarded a train with Mrs. Lincoln and the family en route to Chicago. She spent about three weeks with Mrs.
Lincoln, as she needed stock market after qe2 return to the capital to take care of her business. Mary Lincoln grew more dependent upon Keckley, writing her frequently, asking for visits, and lamenting her new conditions. This period was critical to their later friendship. Lincoln, who was deeply in debt because of extravagant spending, wrote to Keckley, asking for help in disposing of articles of value, including old clothes, by accompanying her to New York to find a broker to handle the sales.
In late September, they arrived in New York, where Mrs. Lincoln used an alias for the duration of her visit. Keckley attempted to help by giving interviews to newspapers sympathetic to Mrs. Lincoln's plight and wrote letters to friends like Frederick Douglass and Henry Highland Garnet, a highly respected minister in the black church community.
The fund raising effort became publicly known, and Mrs. Lincoln was severely criticized for selling clothes and other items associated with her husband's presidency. Elizabeth Keckley donated her Lincoln memorabilia to Wilberforce College for its sale in fundraising to rebuild after a fire in Lincoln was angry about her action, and Keckley changed her original intention to have the articles publicly displayed for fees in Europe.
The publicity and criticism of Mrs. Lincoln strained their relationship, but they remained in contact, although not so close. InElizabeth Keckley published Behind the Scenes, to "attempt to place Mrs. Lincoln in a better light before the world" and to "explain the motives" that guided Mrs. Lincoln's decisions regarding what became known as the "old clothes scandal". Keckley described her own rise from slavery to how did equiano earn money as a middle-class businesswoman who employed staff to help complete her projects.
She was claiming a part in the educated, mixed-race middle class of the black community. She emphasized her ability to overcome difficulties and the development of her business sense. While acknowledging the brutalities under slavery and the sexual abuse that led to the birth of her son George, she spent little time on those events. This was in contrast to other women's slave narratives, in which they revealed white men taking sexual advantage of them.
Essentially she "veiled" her own past but, using alternating chapters, contrasted her life with that of Mary Todd Lincoln and "unveiled" the former First Lady, as she noted her debts. Keckley wrote about the Lincolns, in a style of near hagiography for him, but with a cool, analytical eye for Mary Lincoln.
At a time when the white middle class struggled over "genteel performance", Keckley unveiled a white woman by the very title of her book, showing what went on behind the public scenes and revealing "private, domestic information involving, primarily, white women. Critics such as Carolyn Sorisio have identified Keckley's unveiling of Lincoln as the reason that the book generated such a backlash. A reviewer from the " Cleveland Daily Plain Dealer declared that they were pleased that Keckley's book was published, as it would serve as a warning "to those ladies whose husbands may be elevated to the position of the President of the United States not to put on airs and attempt to appear what their education, their habits of life and social position, and even personal appearance would not warrant.
Her relationship with Lincoln was ambiguous, as it drew both from her work as option trading plan excel employee and from the friendship they developed, which did not meet the rules of gentility.
People felt as if Keckley, an African American and former slave, had transgressed the boundaries that the middle class tried to maintain between public and private life. At the age of fifty, she had violated Victorian codes not only of friendship and privacy, but of forex street el mercado de divisas, gender, and class.
Not surprisingly, the newspapers that attacked Mary Lincoln in the fall, in the spring now leapt to her defense The social threat represented by this black woman's agency also provoked other readers, and someone produced an ugly and viciously racist parody called Behind the Seams; by a Nigger Woman who Took Work in from Mrs.
Davis and Signed with an "X," the Mark of "Betsey Kickley Niggerdenoting its supposed author's illiteracy. Stunned and dismayed by the negative publicity, Keckley wrote letters to newspaper editors and defended her serious intentions, which was part of the model of gentility. The uproar over the book subsided, but it did not sell well. The writer Jennifer Fleischner has suggested that Mrs.
Lincoln's son Robertwho was perpetually embarrassed by his mother's behavior in private life and would have her committed to an asylum indid not want the public to know such intimate details as appeared in buy stock bombay exchange wiki memoir.
With regard to Mrs. Lincoln felt betrayed and extremely disturbed by the work's public disclosure of private conversations and letters that were written to Keckley. Keckley explained that she too had been betrayed; that James Redpath violated her trust by printing the letters he asked her to 'lend' him, as he promised not to disclose them and had not gained her consent for publication.
The now destitute former First Lady permanently severed contact with Keckley. Elizabeth Keckley continued to attempt to earn money by sewing and teaching young women her techniques, while much of her white clientele stopped calling. Eventually she was in great need of money. In at age seventy-two, she made a drastic decision: In the years following, she moved frequently, but in she was offered a faculty position at Wilberforce University as head of the Department of Sewing and Domestic Science Arts and moved to Ohio.
Within a year, she organized a dress exhibit at the Chicago World's Fair. By the late s, she returned to Washington, where she lived in the National Home for Destitute Colored Women and Children an institution established in part by funds contributed by the Contraband Association that she foundedpresumably for health reasons. In her later years, Keckley led a quiet and secluded life. She suffered from headaches and crying spells, much as had her estranged friend Mary Lincoln.
Lincoln had contacted her, and they became reconciled some time after her book's publication. In MayMrs. Keckley died as a resident of the National Home, located on Euclid St. NW, in Washington, D. She was interred at Columbian Harmony Cemetery. Inher remains were transferred to National Harmony Memorial Park in Landover, Marylandwhen Columbian Harmony closed and the land was sold. A historic plaque installed across the street from the site of the former home commemorates her life. While Mary Lincoln lies buried in Springfield in a forex pairs lowest spreads with her husband and sons, Elizabeth Keckley's remains have disappeared.
In the s, a developer paved over the Harmony Cemetery in Washington where Lizzy was buried, and when the graves were moved to a new cemetery, her unclaimed remains were placed in an unmarked grave—like those of her mother, slave father, and son. Keckley's autobiography prompted controversy and questions about the veracity of her portrayals. Inthe journalist David Rankin Barbee wrote that Keckley had neither written her autobiography nor even existed as a person; he asserted the abolitionist writer Jane Swisshelm wrote the slave narrative to advance her abolitionist cause.
Barbee modified his statement, saying: On May 26,years after her death, a marker was placed at Keckley's grave in National Harmony Memorial Park. Funds were contributed by "National Harmony Memorial Park; The Surratt Society; Black Women United For Action, a Virginia-based organization that works to improve the lives of women; The Lincoln Forum, a national organization that works to learn about and preserve the memory of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War; and the Ford's Theatre Society.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Elizabeth Keckley Born February Dinwiddie County Court HouseDinwiddie, Virginia Died May aged 89 Washington, D. Child labour Conscription Debt Forced marriage Bride buying Wife selling Forced prostitution Human trafficking Peonage Penal labour Sexual slavery.
By country or region. Sub-Saharan Africa Contemporary Africa Slavery on the Barbary Coast Barbary slave trade Slave Coast Angola Chad Ethiopia Mali Mauritania Niger Somalia South Africa Sudan Seychelles North and South America Americas indigenous U. Anti-Slavery International Blockade of Africa U. Compensated emancipation Freedman manumission Freedom suit Abolitionists Slave Power Underground Railroad songs Slave rebellion Slave Trade Acts International law 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Common law Indentured servant Unfree labour Fugitive slaves laws Great Dismal Swamp how to forex trading works List of slaves owners Slave narrative films songs Slave name Slave catcher Slave patrol Slave Route Project Treatment in U. Keckl e how to get a lot of money on cashcrate husband was a slave; we do not know whether he was literate or from what family he acquired his name.
The spelling of his name remains in question. Behind the Scenes, or Thirty Years a Slave, and Four Years in the White House. African American Women during the Civil War. The Black Abolitionist Papers: The United States, University of North Carolina Press. Women's Suffrage in America: The Journal of Negro History.
A Life New York: Basic Civitas, Retrieved November 25, Keckley Has Met With Great Success".
New York TimesOpinionator Blog. Retrieved 17 March Slave Narrative Collection Captivity narrative. Lovisa von Burghausen — Olaudah Equiano c. Juan Francisco Manzano —, Cuba Esteban Montejo —, Cuba Mary Prince Venerable Pierre Toussaint Saint-Dominque — June 30, NY Marcos Xiorro c.
Sam Aleckson Jordan Anderson William J. Vance Lewis Jermain Wesley Loguen Solomon Northup John Parker VA — William Parker James Robert Moses Roper Omar ibn Said William Henry Singleton Venture Smith Austin Steward VA — Venerable Pierre Toussaint Saint-Dominque — NY Harriet Tubman Wallace Turnage Bethany Veney Booker T. Washington Wallace Willis 19th century Indian Territory Harriet E. Wilson Zamba Zembola b. Brazil Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua —, Brazil.
The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano The Narrative of Robert Adams American Slavery as It Is Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave The Life of Josiah Henson Twelve Years a Slave My Bondage and My Freedom Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl The Underground Railroad Records Life and Times of Frederick Douglass Up from Slavery The Peculiar Institution The Slave Community Oroonoko Sab Uncle Tom's Cabin The Heroic Slave Clotel Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp The Bondwoman's Narrative ?
Our Nig Jubilee Confessions of Nat Turner Roots: The Saga of an American Family Underground to Canada Kindred Dessa Rose Beloved Middle Passage Queen: The Story of an American Family Hang a Thousand Trees with Ribbons Ama: A Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade Walk Through Darkness The Known World Unburnable Copper Sun The Book of Negroes Amos Fortune, Free Man I, Juan de Pareja The Slave-girl from Jerusalem To a Southern Slaveholder A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin The Escape; or, A Leap for Freedom The Octoroon African-American literature Caribbean literature Films featuring slavery Songs of the Underground Railroad Book of Negroes Cotton Plantation Record and Account Book Slave Songs of the United States Amazing Grace: An Anthology of Poems about Slavery The Hemingses of Monticello Unchained Memories Frederick Douglass and the White Negro Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: Virginia Women in History.
Agnew, Ella Graham Ella Graham Agnew Baldwin, Mary Julia Mary Julia Baldwin Brent, Margaret Margaret Brent Cather, Willa Willa Cather Dean, Jennie Jennie Dean Fain, Sarah Lee Sarah Lee Fain Glasgow, Ellen Ellen Glasgow Madison, Dolley Dolley MadisonPocahontas Pocahontas Rind, Clementina Clementina Rind Valentine, Lila Meade Lila Meade Valentine Walker, Maggie L.
Bowser, Rosa Dixon Rosa Dixon Bowser Campbell, Elizabeth Elizabeth Campbell Jordan, Thomasina Thomasina Jordan Keckley, Elizabeth Elizabeth Keckley Pollak, Theresa Theresa Pollak Tompkins, Sally Louisa Sally Louisa Tompkins Van Lew, Elizabeth Elizabeth Van Lew Wilson, Edith Edith Wilson.
Adamson, Rebecca Rebecca Adamson Barrett, Janie Porter Janie Porter Barrett Cline, Patsy Patsy Cline Corbin, Hannah Lee Hannah Lee Corbin Darden, Christine Christine Darden McDaniel, Lillian Ward Lillian Ward McDaniel Munford, Mary-Cooke Branch Mary-Cooke Branch Munford Rattley, Jessie M. Astor, Nancy Nancy Astor Bailey, Pearl Pearl Bailey Bodeker, Anna Whitehead Anna Whitehead Bodeker Mary Ann Elliott Mary Ann Elliott Jenkins, Annabelle Ravenscroft Gibson Annabelle Ravenscroft Gibson Jenkins Johnston, Frances Benjamin Frances Benjamin Johnston Peebles, Anne Dobie Anne Dobie Peebles Spencer, Annie Bannister Annie Bannister Spencer.
Arents, Grace Grace ArentsCockacoeske Cockacoeske Couric, Katie Katie Couric Holden, Anne Makemie Anne Makemie Holden Ingles, Mary Draper Mary Draper Ingles Jones, Sarah Garland Boyd Sarah Garland Boyd Jones Snyder, Annie Annie Snyder Washington, Martha Martha Washington. Adams-Ender, Clara Leach Clara Leach Adams-Ender Day, Caitlyn Caitlyn Day Griffin, Bessie Blount Bessie Blount Griffin Johnston, Mary Mary Johnston Powell, Barbara Johns Barbara Johns Powell Smith, Lee Lee Smith Wade, Mary Belvin Mary Belvin Wade.
Barrett, Kate Waller Kate Waller Barrett Berg, Marie Majella Marie Majella Berg Bowman, John-Geline MacDonald John-Geline MacDonald Bowman Fitzgerald-Brown, Benita Benita Fitzgerald-Brown Hopper, Grace Grace Hopper McClenahan, Mary Tyler Freeman Cheek Mary Tyler Freeman Cheek McClenahan Richardson, G.
Anne Richardson Terhune, Mary Virginia Mary Virginia Terhune. Byrd, Mary Willing Mary Willing Byrd Carter, Maybelle Maybelle Carter Copenhaver, Laura Lu Scherer Laura Lu Scherer Copenhaver Futrell, Mary Alice Franklin Hatwood Mary Alice Franklin Hatwood Futrell Galt, Mary Jeffery Mary Jeffery Galt Johnson, Sheila Crump Sheila Crump JohnsonOpossunoquonuske Opossunoquonuske Williams, Camilla Camilla Williams.
Berkeley, Frances Culpeper Frances Culpeper Berkeley Brooks, Lucy Goode Lucy Goode Brooks Gonzalez, Providencia Velazquez Providencia Velazquez Gonzalez Lacy, Elizabeth B. Lacy McCrumb, Sharyn Sharyn McCrumb Moss, P. Buckley Moss Rogers, Isabel Wood Isabel Wood Rogers Turner, Edith Edith Turner. Adams, Pauline Pauline Adams Cook, Caroline Bradby Caroline Bradby Cook Emerson, Claudia Claudia Emerson Faust, Drew Gilpin Drew Gilpin Faust Grayson, Joann Hess Joann Hess Grayson Randolph, Mary Mary Randolph Randolph, Virginia Virginia Randolph Terry, Mary Sue Mary Sue Terry.
Adams, Mollie Holmes Mollie Holmes Adams Furman, Ethel Ethel Furman Harrison, Edythe C. Harrison Martin, Janis Janis Martin Rowland, Kate Mason Kate Mason Rowland Skipwith, Jean Miller Jean Miller Skipwith Stovall, Queena Queena Stovall Van Landingham, Marian Marian Van Landingham.
Addison, Lucy Lucy Addison Bontecou, Eleanor Eleanor Bontecou Fleming, Emily White Emily White Fleming Fu, Pearl Pearl Fu Lincoln, Lillian Lillian Lincoln Marshall, Bessie Niemeyer Bessie Niemeyer Marshall Rogan, Felicia Warburg Felicia Warburg Rogan Russell, Elizabeth Henry Campbell Elizabeth Henry Campbell Russell. Ames, Susie May Susie May Ames Beltran, Monica Monica Beltran Campbell, Christiana Burdett Christiana Burdett Campbell Christian, Betty Sams Betty Sams Christian McIntosh, Elizabeth Peet Elizabeth Peet McIntosh Puckett, Orelena Hawks Orelena Hawks Puckett Shatin, Judith Judith Shatin Stuart, Alice Jackson Alice Jackson Stuart.
Alexander Archer, Louise Louise Archer Carrington, Elizabeth Ambler Brent Elizabeth Ambler Brent Carrington Compton, Ann Ann Compton Falletta, JoAnn JoAnn Falletta Powell, Cleo Cleo Powell Pruitt, Inez Inez Pruitt Scott, Eva Mae Fleming Eva Mae Fleming Scott. Blackford, Mary Berkeley Minor Mary Berkeley Minor Blackford Cohn, Naomi Silverman Naomi Silverman Cohn Duke, Elizabeth Ashburn Elizabeth Ashburn Duke Findlay, Rachel Rachel Findlay Kendall, Christine Herter Christine Herter Kendall Loving, Mildred Mildred Loving Ryan, Debbie Debbie Ryan Winslett, Stoner Stoner Winslett.
Caldwell, Nancy Melvina Nancy Melvina Caldwell Giovanni, Nikki Nikki Giovanni Harris, Ruth Coles Ruth Coles Harris McDiarmid, Dorothy Shoemaker Dorothy Shoemaker McDiarmid Peterkin, Rebekah Dulaney Rebekah Dulaney Peterkin Pinn, Vivian Vivian Pinn Stith, Elizabeth Bray Allen Smith Elizabeth Bray Allen Smith Stith Wood, Karenne Karenne Wood.
Crittenden Day, Elizabeth Nottingham Elizabeth Nottingham Day Gray, Sarah A. Gray Isaac, Edwilda Allen Edwilda Allen Isaac Johnson, Katherine Katherine Johnson King, Ada Ines Ada Ines King Masters, Betty Betty Masters Oberndorf, Meyera Meyera Oberndorf. Crouse-Mays, Doris Doris Crouse-Mays Foley, Corazon Sandoval Corazon Sandoval Foley Houston, Nora Nora Houston Hudson, Cynthia Eppes Cynthia Eppes Hudson Jones, Mary Virginia Mary Virginia Jones McCraw, Louise Harrison Louise Harrison McCraw Moore, Undine Smith Undine Smith Moore Rollins, Martha Martha Rollins.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Africa Robert Adams c. Non-fiction The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano The Narrative of Robert Adams American Slavery as It Is Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave The Life of Josiah Henson Twelve Years a Slave My Bondage and My Freedom Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl The Underground Railroad Records Life and Times of Frederick Douglass Up from Slavery The Peculiar Institution The Slave Community