The Wall Street Crash of , also known as Black Tuesday October 29 ,  the Great Crash , or the Stock Market Crash of , began on October 24, "Black Thursday" , and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States , when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects. The Roaring Twenties , the decade that followed World War I and led to the crash,  was a time of wealth and excess.
Building on post-war optimism, rural Americans migrated to the cities in vast numbers throughout the decade with the hopes of finding a more prosperous life in the ever-growing expansion of America's industrial sector.
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Despite the dangers of speculation , many believed that the stock market would continue to rise forever. On March 25, , after the Federal Reserve warned of excessive speculation, a mini crash occurred as investors started to sell stocks at a rapid pace, exposing the market's shaky foundation.
The market had been on a nine-year run that saw the Dow Jones Industrial Average increase in value tenfold, peaking at The initial September decline was thus called the "Babson Break" in the press. This was the start of the Great Crash, although until the severe phase of the crash in October, many investors regarded the September "Babson Break" as a "healthy correction" and buying opportunity.
On September 20, the London Stock Exchange crashed when top British investor Clarence Hatry and many of his associates were jailed for fraud and forgery. Periods of selling and high volumes were interspersed with brief periods of rising prices and recovery. Selling intensified in mid October.
Stock Market Crash of
On October 24 "Black Thursday" , the market lost 11 percent of its value at the opening bell on very heavy trading. The huge volume meant that the report of prices on the ticker tape in brokerage offices around the nation was hours late, so investors had no idea what most stocks were actually trading for at that moment, increasing panic. Several leading Wall Street bankers met to find a solution to the panic and chaos on the trading floor.
Lamont , acting head of Morgan Bank ; Albert Wiggin , head of the Chase National Bank ; and Charles E. Mitchell , president of the National City Bank of New York. They chose Richard Whitney , vice president of the Exchange, to act on their behalf.
With the bankers' financial resources behind him, Whitney placed a bid to purchase a large block of shares in U. Steel at a price well above the current market. As traders watched, Whitney then placed similar bids on other " blue chip " stocks.
This tactic was similar to one that ended the Panic of It succeeded in halting the slide. The Dow Jones Industrial Average recovered, closing with it down only 6.
The rally continued on Friday, October 25, and the half day session on Saturday the 26th but, unlike , the respite was only temporary. Over the weekend, the events were covered by the newspapers across the United States. On October 28, "Black Monday",  more investors facing margin calls decided to get out of the market, and the slide continued with a record loss in the Dow for the day of The next day, "Black Tuesday", October 29, , about 16 million shares traded as the panic selling reached its peak.
Some stocks actually had no buyers at any price that day "air pockets". The Dow lost an additional 30 points, or 12 percent. On October 29, William C.
Durant joined with members of the Rockefeller family and other financial giants to buy large quantities of stocks to demonstrate to the public their confidence in the market, but their efforts failed to stop the large decline in prices. Due to the massive volume of stocks traded that day, the ticker did not stop running until about 7: After a one-day recovery on October 30, where the Dow regained an additional The market then recovered for several months, starting on November 14, with the Dow gaining The following year, the Dow embarked on another, much longer, steady slide from April to July 8, , when it closed at For most of the s, the Dow began slowly to regain the ground it lost during the crash and the three years following it, beginning on March 15, , with the largest percentage increase of The largest percentage increases of the Dow Jones occurred during the early and mids.
In late , there was a sharp dip in the stock market, but prices held well above the lows. The market would not return to the peak closing of September 3, , until November 23, The crash followed a speculative boom that had taken hold in the late s. During the later half of the s, steel production, building construction, retail turnover, automobiles registered, even railway receipts advanced from record to record.
The combined net profits of manufacturing and trading companies showed an increase, in fact for the first six months of , of Iron and steel led the way with doubled gains. A significant number of them were borrowing money to buy more stocks.
By August , brokers were routinely lending small investors more than two-thirds of the face value of the stocks they were buying. The rising share prices encouraged more people to invest; people hoped the share prices would rise further. Speculation thus fueled further rises and created an economic bubble. Because of margin buying , investors stood to lose large sums of money if the market turned down—or even failed to advance quickly enough. Good harvests had built up a mass of million bushels of wheat to be "carried over" when opened.
By May there was also a winter-wheat crop of million bushels ready for harvest in the Mississippi Valley. This oversupply caused a drop in wheat prices so heavy that the net incomes of the farming population from wheat were threatened with extinction. Stock markets are always sensitive to the future state of commodity markets, and the slump in Wall Street predicted for May by Sir George Paish arrived on time.
In June , the position was saved by a severe drought in the Dakotas and the Canadian West, plus unfavorable seed times in Argentina and eastern Australia.
The oversupply would now be wanted to fill the big gaps in the world wheat production. When it was seen that at this figure the American farmers would get rather more for their smaller crop than for that of , up went stocks again and from far and wide orders came to buy shares for the profits to come. In August, the wheat price fell when France and Italy were bragging of a magnificent harvest, and the situation in Australia improved.
This sent a shiver through Wall Street and stock prices quickly dropped, but word of cheap stocks brought a fresh rush of "stags", amateur speculators and investors. Congress had also voted for a million dollar relief package for the farmers, hoping to stabilize wheat prices. Other important economic barometers were also slowing or even falling by mid, including car sales, house sales, and steel production.
The falling commodity and industrial production may have dented even American self-confidence, and the stock market peaked on September 3 at Selling intensified in early and mid October, with sharp down days punctuated by a few up days. Panic selling on huge volume started the week of October 21 and intensified and culminated on October 24, the 28th and especially the 29th "Black Tuesday". The president of the Chase National Bank said at the time: It was inevitable, because of the tremendous increase in the number of stockholders in recent years, that the number of sellers would be greater than ever when the boom ended and selling took the place of buying.
In , the Pecora Commission was established by the U. Senate to study the causes of the crash. The following year, the U. Congress passed the Glass—Steagall Act mandating a separation between commercial banks , which take deposits and extend loans , and investment banks , which underwrite , issue, and distribute stocks , bonds , and other securities.
After the experience of the crash, stock markets around the world instituted measures to suspend trading in the event of rapid declines, claiming that the measures would prevent such panic sales.
However, the one-day crash of Black Monday , October 19, , when the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell The American mobilization for World War II at the end of moved approximately ten million people out of the civilian labor force and into the war.
The Great Crash of propelled gold, a historically viable store of value and durable medium of exchange, to unprecedented value. Many businesses failed 28, failures and a daily rate of in Together, the stock market crash and the Great Depression formed the largest financial crisis of the 20th century.
The Wall Street Crash had a major impact on the U. Some people believed that abuses by utility holding companies contributed to the Wall Street Crash of and the Depression that followed. The crash brought the Roaring Twenties to a shuddering halt.
Kindleberger , in , there was no lender of last resort effectively present, which, if it had existed and were properly exercised, would have been key in shortening the business slowdown[s] that normally follows financial crises. Historians still debate the question: However, the psychological effects of the crash reverberated across the nation as businesses became aware of the difficulties in securing capital market investments for new projects and expansions.
Business uncertainty naturally affects job security for employees, and as the American worker the consumer faced uncertainty with regards to income, naturally the propensity to consume declined. The decline in stock prices caused bankruptcies and severe macroeconomic difficulties including contraction of credit, business closures, firing of workers, bank failures, decline of the money supply, and other economically depressing events. The resultant rise of mass unemployment is seen as a result of the crash, although the crash is by no means the sole event that contributed to the depression.
The Wall Street Crash is usually seen as having the greatest impact on the events that followed and therefore is widely regarded as signaling the downward economic slide that initiated the Great Depression. True or not, the consequences were dire for almost everybody. Most academic experts agree on one aspect of the crash: It wiped out billions of dollars of wealth in one day, and this immediately depressed consumer buying. The failure set off a worldwide run on US gold deposits i.
Some 4, banks and other lenders ultimately failed. Also, the uptick rule ,  which allowed short selling only when the last tick in a stock's price was positive, was implemented after the market crash to prevent short sellers from driving the price of a stock down in a bear raid.
The stock market crash of October led directly to the Great Depression in Europe. When stocks plummeted on the New York Stock Exchange , the world noticed immediately. Although financial leaders in the United Kingdom, as in the United States, vastly underestimated the extent of the crisis that would ensue, it soon became clear that the world's economies were more interconnected than ever.
The effects of the disruption to the global system of financing, trade, and production and the subsequent meltdown of the American economy were soon felt throughout Europe.
Protests often focused on the so-called Means Test , which the government had instituted in as a way to limit the amount of unemployment payments made to individuals and families. For working people, the Means Test seemed an intrusive and insensitive way to deal with the chronic and relentless deprivation caused by the economic crisis.
The strikes were met forcefully, with police breaking up protests, arresting demonstrators, and charging them with crimes related to the violation of public order. Economists and historians disagree as to what role the crash played in subsequent economic, social, and political events.
The Economist argued in a article that the Depression did not start with the stock market crash. They asked, "Can a very serious Stock Exchange collapse produce a serious setback to industry when industrial production is for the most part in a healthy and balanced condition? But The Economist also cautioned that some bank failures are also to be expected and some banks may not have any reserves left for financing commercial and industrial enterprises.
They concluded that the position of the banks is the key to the situation, but what was going to happen could not have been foreseen.
Academics see the Wall Street Crash of as part of a historical process that was a part of the new theories of boom and bust.BBC2 Documentary 1929 The Great Crash 1929
According to economists such as Joseph Schumpeter , Nikolai Kondratiev and Charles E. Mitchell , the crash was merely a historical event in the continuing process known as economic cycles.
The impact of the crash was merely to increase the speed at which the cycle proceeded to its next level. Milton Friedman 's A Monetary History of the United States , co-written with Anna Schwartz , advances the argument that what made the "great contraction" so severe was not the downturn in the business cycle, protectionism , or the stock market crash in themselves — but instead, according to Friedman and Schwartz, what plunged the country into a deep depression was the collapse of the banking system during three waves of panics over the —33 period.
Media related to Wall Street Crash of at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the British vocal group, see Wall Street Crash group. For other uses, see Black Tuesday disambiguation. Causes of the Great Depression. United States portal s portal.
Retrieved August 12, Archived from the original on May 25, Retrieved January 29, The most savage bear market of all time was the Wall Street Crash of —, in which share prices fell by 89 per cent. Retrieved November 10, A selected Wall Street chronology".
Black Thursday Facts, Causes, and Effects
Retrieved September 30, Retrieved October 1, The Causes of the Stock Market Crash: A Speculative Orgy or a New Era? What Do We Name the Crisis? The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 11, Industrial Stocks Pass Peak", The Times , November 24, , p.
National Library of Australia. Retrieved November 22, At the turn of the 20th century stock market speculation was restricted to professionals, but the s saw millions of 'ordinary Americans' investing in the New York Stock Exchange. Retrieved February 3, The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved November 20, Retrieved September 8, Retrieved August 25, Past lessons, present advice; Did '29 Crash Spark The Depression?
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